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8 April, 05:26

How can you tell their what type of chemical reactions they are like (single double combustion decomposing neutralization synthesis) just by looking at the reactants.

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  1. 8 April, 05:34
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    A composition reaction (sometimes also called a combination reaction or a synthesis reaction) produces a single substance from multiple reactants. A single substance as a product is the key characteristic of the composition reaction. There may be a coefficient other than one for the substance, but if the reaction has only a single substance as a product, it can be called a composition reaction. In the reaction

    2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 H2O (ℓ)

    water is produced from hydrogen and oxygen. Although there are two molecules of water being produced, there is only one substance-water-as a product. So this is a composition reaction.

    A decomposition reaction starts from a single substance and produces more than one substance; that is, it decomposes. One substance as a reactant and more than one substance as the products is the key characteristic of a decomposition reaction. For example, in the decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate (also known as sodium bicarbonate),

    2 NaHCO3 (s) → Na2CO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O (ℓ)

    sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide, and water are produced from the single substance sodium hydrogen carbonate.

    Composition and decomposition reactions are difficult to predict; however, they should be easy to recognize.

    A combustion reaction occurs when a reactant combines with oxygen, many times from the atmosphere, to produce oxides of all other elements as products; any nitrogen in the reactant is converted to elemental nitrogen, N2. Many reactants, called fuels, contain mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms, reacting with oxygen to produce CO2 and H2O. For example, the balanced chemical equation for the combustion of methane, CH4, is as follows:

    CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O

    Kerosene can be approximated with the formula C12H26, and its combustion equation is

    2 C12H26 + 37 O2 → 24 CO2 + 26 H2O

    Sometimes fuels contain oxygen atoms, which must be counted when balancing the chemical equation. One common fuel is ethanol, C2H5OH, whose combustion equation is

    C2H5OH + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 3 H2O

    If nitrogen is present in the original fuel, it is converted to N2, not to a nitrogen-oxygen compound. Thus, for the combustion of the fuel dinitroethylene, whose formula is C2H2N2O4, we have

    2 C2H2N2O4 + O2 → 4 CO2 + 2 H2O + 2 N2
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