 Physics
13 April, 22:15

# he adventurous robot M. A. N. D. I. is orbiting Saturn's moon Dione. She wants to cause an impact with themoon to kick up some of the surface dust so that she can do a spectral analysis of it. She tosses a steel ball bearing inthe opposite direction of her orbital velocity with just the right impulse to make the ball come to a dead stop. That'sthe back story. The actual problem starts here: The ball, starting with zero velocity, falls straight down to the surfaceof the moon. If the moon has a radius of5.61*103m and a mass of1.10*1021kg, and if the ball bearing starts at analtitude of2.73*103m above the surface of the moon, how fast will it be going when it hits the surface? Note thatthe gravitational constantG = 6.67408*10-11N m2/kg2.

+1
1. 13 April, 23:09
0
v = 2.928 10³ m / s

Explanation:

For this exercise we use Newton's second law where the force is the gravitational pull force

F = ma

a = F / m

Acceleration is

a = dv / dt

a = dv / dr dr / dt

a = dv / dr v

v dv = a dr

We substitute

v dv = a dr

∫ v dv = 1 / m G m M ∫ 1 / r² dr

We integrate

½ v² = G M (-1 / r)

We evaluate from the lower limit v = 0 for r = R m to the upper limit v = v for r = R + 2.73 10³, where R is the radius of Saturn's moon

v² = 2G M ( - 1 / R + 2.73 10³ + 1 / R)

We calculate

v² = 2 6,674 10⁻¹¹ 1.10 10²¹ (10⁻³ / 5.61 - 10⁻³ / (5.61 + 2.73))

v² = 14.6828 10⁷ (0.1783 - 0.1199)

v = √8.5748 10⁶

v = 2.928 10³ m / s